I came across mention of the American Textile History Museum in Lowell, Massachusetts, and became excited about a possible road trip, but alas, it has shut its doors due to budget deficits. My interest was piqued by an article on Saatchi Art’s blog, “Modern Artists and Their Textiles, “which talks about the museum’s 2015 exhibit of 20th century artist-designed fabrics.
Picasso, Calder, Dali, Matisse, and even Warhol worked with fabric companies along with many other artists. The TextielMuseum Tilburg in the Netherlands held the same exhibit in 2014. The exhibit is now at the New Lanark Visitor Centre, Lanark, Scotland, through April 29, 2018. Here’s a link to a short video about the exhibit. The individual designers aren’t identified, but you can get a feel for the clothing made with the fabrics. Fred Butler published a frustratingly unlabeled photo heavy post about the 2015 London showing of this exhibit.
Here’s just a few items that appealed to me.
According to the introduction to the Artist Textiles: Picasso to Warhol exhibit, “many turn-of-the-century artists looked for ways to make their work less elitist and more appealing to a broader audience. Like [William] Morris they discovered design, and in particular mass-produced textiles, as a means to achieve this…. Before the Second World War, many artists, mainly from the Fauvist, Futurist and Constructivist movements, turned to textile design. Like graphic design and book illustrations, printing their designs on fabric was a logical step. … French Modernist artists Raoul Dufy and Sonia Delaunay as well as Russians Liubov Popova and Vavara Stepanova were pioneers of this trend. They sought to eliminate the distinction between fine and applied art. ”
Apparently there was a vogue for such textiles in post-World War II United States. They showed up in scarves, draperies, upholstery, and clothing.
“In the mid-1950s, an ambitious collaboration between a textile company and artists produced to the ‘Modern Masters’ series. New York-based Fuller Fabrics released a line of Picasso prints, quickly followed by ‘Art by the Yard’ by Joan Miró, Fernand Léger, Marc Chagall and Raoul Dufy. Even Pop artist Andy Warhol turned his hand to textiles in the early 1960s, designing food-related patterns that have only recently become widely known.”
Fun Fact: Picasso wouldn’t allow his designs to be printed on upholstery fabric as he didn’t want people to sit on his work.
Sonia Delaunay is my favorite artist who worked in textiles. Not only did she design fabrics, but she turned her hand to rugs and even clothing design. She doesn’t seem to have much in this exhibit. In fact, she is one of just two women in the show.
Sonia Delaunay drawing
Sonia Delaunay Gloria Swanson coat
Sonia Celaunay scarf 1965
I don’t know if today’s artists are actively seeking to eliminate “the distinction between fine and applied art” in branching out beyond museums and galleries. In fairness to them, I suspect their names don’t have the same cachet as Picasso’s did in the 1950s. It seems celebrity name franchising is more the norm – athletic shoes and the like.
Artistic Endeavors – Sonia Delaunay
Since I had mentioned Sonia Delaunay in an earlier post I decided to give her a post of her own. In the course of her long life (1885 to 1979) she collaborated with famous artists and poets in 1920s Paris; painted, designed fabrics, clothing and costumes; and co-founded an art movement. And she was the first living female artist to have a retrospective exhibition at the Louvre in 1964.
She claimed a quilt she made for her son was the origin of the Simultanism movement. That name comes from the work of French scientist Michel Eugène Chevreul who identified the phenomenon of ‘simultaneous contrast’, in which colors look different depending on the colors around them. For example, a gray will look lighter on a dark background than it does on a light one.
In Delaunay’s words, “About 1911 I had the idea of making for my son, who had just been born, a blanket composed of bits of fabric like those I had seen in the houses of Russian peasants. When it was finished, the arrangement of the pieces of material seemed to me to evoke cubist conceptions and we then tried to apply the same process to other objects and paintings.”
There have been at least two important exhibits of Delaunay’s work since her death. The one held at the Tate Modern in 2015 is the latest one I found. The Smithsonian Cooper Hewitt’s 2011 exhibit is discussed in a video of the talk given by Dr. Sherry Buckberrough, a Delaunay scholar. Another video gives a slide show of Delaunay’s work.
I want to focus on her clothing and fabric designs as I see lots of inspiration in them for quilts. More practically, they are how Delaunay supported her family. I took photos of designs that caught my eye from “Sonia Delaunay: Art Into Fashion,” 1986, George Braziller, Inc.
First up, clothing designs that women in the 1920s wore. Delaunay also designed theatrical costumes.
Next, ideas for quilting designs.
Finally, ideas for quilt compositions.
And one I’d love to have as a scarf.
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Tagged as costume design, fabric design, Sonia Delaunay